An LED lamp (or LED light bulb) is a solid-state lamp that uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as the source of light. LED lamps offer long service life and high energy efficiency, but initial costs are higher than those of fluorescent and incandescent lamps. Chemical decomposition of LED chips reduces luminous flux over life cycle as with conventional lamps.
Efficiency of LED devices continues to improve, with some chips able to emit more than 100 lumens per watt. LEDs do not emit light in all directions, and their directional characteristics affect the design of lamps. The efficiency of conversion from electric power to light is generally higher than for incandescent lamps. Since the light output of many types of light-emitting diodes is small compared to incandescent and compact fluorescent lamps, in most applications multiple diodes are assembled.
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